- Disadvantages Of The Cbd Oil Biotech Muscle Gel
- Should You Use Topical Or Oral Cbd For Soreness?
- Top 20 Best Cbd Pain Relief Products In 2020
- Chil Wellness Cbd Review
- Cbd Age Limits Requirements: How Long Does Cbd Stay In Your Body?
- Cbd Topical Pain Relief
- Muscle Cramps And Spasms
Among them the best corneal permeability and intraocular pressure-lowering activity shown by these prodrugs were observed in the THC-Val-HS emulsion and micellar solution formulations. Vitality Biopharma have proposed an invention that has led to several cannabinoid glycoside prodrugs being obtained and characterized . This method grants the gastro-intestinal targeting of THC, while avoiding narcotic effects. Oh et al. have published a PK study that compares the oral solution and capsule forms of dronabinol under fasting and fed conditions. Dronabinol exerted a modest, but clinically relevant, analgesic effect on central pain in the pain treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis.
CBD muscle balms are often seen as superior compared to other methods of CBD consumption when it comes to certain conditions. A new study suggests our genes could have a significant influence in the type of flavors we’re interested in, including our coffee preferences. However, patients must feel empowered to share that they are dependent on opioids, which often is kept silent due to a myriad of reasons.
CBD doesn’t work like opioids, which makes it a safer and more dependable option for those who live with chronic pain. They work by making pain sensations, but they don’t solve the underlying cause of pain. This means that in order to keep pain at bay, patients must take these medications daily.
If your muscles are not strong enough, then the weight you lift will be absorbed by the connective tissues instead. In most cases, it will clear up with home therapies, steroid injections, physical therapy, acupuncture, or chiropractic care in less than 3 months. If it continues beyond 3 months or incontinence becomes a problem, you may need surgery. All unopened products can be returned within 30 days for a full refund. If you have poor pelvic control then your hamstring muscles can be in a vulnerable position which can lead to injury. The tendency to experience a gout attack can be an inherited trait but it can also be brought on by high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, surgery, chemotherapy, stress and certain medications.
For those unfamiliar, anti-catabolic supplements reduce the production of catabolic hormones. CBD works in a similar manner by activating the endocannabinoid receptors we discussed earlier, leading to an anti-catabolic response. This means that, when activated, the endocannabinoid system can reduce the risk of muscle loss, while helping muscles recover – and grow – faster. The most effective natural foot pain relief product available anywhere. If you don’t live in a legalized state, you can typically still get CBD creams.
On the other hand, a recent study evaluating the effects of CBD in people who have hip and knee osteoarthritis showed no major benefit in using CBD for pain versus not using it . Researchers across the board, though , agree that more human studies are needed to know for sure. Although hemp CBD is legal, some users say it’s not as effective as CBD derived from marijuana plants. If you have chronic pain in your knee and live in a state where medical cannabis is legal, you could qualify. Contact a doctor certified to issue cannabis recommendations in your state to find out more. On top of infusing this cream with a decent amount of CBD, Royal CBD uses organic oils as the cream’s base, including olive oil, coconut oil, and beeswax oil.
When used for pain, customer reviews noted a reduction in pain within a few minutes. The Fab CBD Topical Cream features a subtle blood orange fragrance in addition to smooth texture for easy application. While we have been focusing on CBD creams for this guide, CBDistillery’s CBDol Topical Salve caught our attention due to its beneficial results in dealing with the pain caused by arthritis. The only real difference between CBD creams and salves is the amount of water used in production.
It’s always a good idea to discuss any new health regimens with your health care provider. One of the greatest benefits of taking CBD cream for sciatic nerve pain is that the a CBD topical cream may help your body to reach its natural state of homeostasis. This means that it will work in the background to produce a lot of positive results. You may start to look younger because many CBD receptors are located in the skin. Your organs may start to function better because they are no longer being inflamed by dysfunctional cells or toxins.
It is a powerful anti inflammatory BUT inflammation is not always a bad thing. For sports injuries it is actually a positive thing it is a natural response by the body to promote healing. The jury is still out on whether CBD topicals offer up definitive pain relief, but many people report having success with creams, lotions, and salves for all kinds of ailments. Research is still ongoing, but some smaller studies and animal research suggests that CBD may reduce inflammation and help provide pain relief. Studies have specifically looked at CBD for arthritis, nerve, and jaw pain. This cooling cream is made with arnica extract and organic menthol, which, along with full-spectrum CBD, help provide pain relief.
In a 2017 study in Israel, researchers found that patients with depression and anxiety were more likely to abuse the use of their selected treatment, whether it consisted of marijuana or opioids. In the case of Summer pain management, bioavailability can greatly determine whether or not treatment is a success or has any effect on the intended pain relief. Full-spectrum matters when it comes to medical cannabis oil infusions.
Explain how you intend to perform at least one identity test for all incoming components used in your drug product. Your response cannot be fully evaluated because you failed to provide documentation and sufficient details about your firm’s plan to establish appropriate drug product specifications and manufacturing procedures. In your response, you state that you are in the process of establishing drug product specifications and sampling plans. You state that you have prepared written procedures describing the production process for each of your drug products. We acknowledge your statement that you hired a CGMP consultant and a “” to bring your facility into CGMP compliance.
Though it does not give a variety of flavor options, Populum does include a variety of dosage amounts, ranging from 250mg to 1000mg, and comes at an affordable price. They also provide a monthly subscription option for those who find their products suitable for their needs. FAB CBD oil drops are a great source for enhanced wellness and vitality. They offer several fan-favorite CBD hemp oil flavors including citrus, mint, natural, berry, and vanilla.
But, in the third type of extract, which is full spectrum CBD, there is a trace amount of THC. So while THC is present, it won’t make you feel high or overly euphoric. It’s just enough to encourage the entourage effect, which enhances the effects that CBD has on the body. For many people, What are Delta 10 Gummies? daily aches and pains are just accepted as part of everyday life, but what if this doesn’t have to be your reality? While there are over-the-counter and prescription painkillers to help with sore joints or tired muscles, there are also all-natural options that are worth considering.
Nabiximols has now received marketing authorization in EU countries for the treatment of spasticity and FDA investigational new drug status for the treatment of cancer pain. Some clinical trials into the use of Sativex for the treatment of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis patients have been successful , leading to the drug gaining approval in Israel and Canada. However, further work is still required to define the best responder profile for nabiximols and to explore its full potential in this field is still required. Furthermore, other improved oral-dosage formulations and therapeutic applications have been presented in a number of patents. Clinical considerations of the oral administration of a solid-dosage, CBD-containing form for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease have been published in a patent by Robson .
If you follow a link from our site and purchase something, we may be paid a commission. Prime Women promotes those products and services with which we are personally familiar, and oftentimes, use ourselves. Available in 5 formulations for sports injuries, arthritis, full spectrum Vegan CBD gummies sprains, bruises and related types of inflammation. This smooth, non-greasy lubricant doesn’t contain any active pain-relieving ingredients. Instead, it’s designed to act as a friction-reducer for massages — another tactic for soothing tight, overworked muscles.
The Fresh Toast is an award-winning lifestyle & health platform with a side of cannabis. We work hard each day to bring uplifting and informative information about culture, weed, celebrity, tech and medical marijuana. We cannot stress enough how important it is to always read CBD oil reviews.
Customer reviews have been delighted with the CBD Harmonizing Face Cream to work on dry or even irritated and itchy skin, noting a velvet texture and an enjoyable citrus aroma. While the potency in the CBD Harmonizing Face Cream is too low to render on our therapeutic scale, its formula is known to assist in healthier-looking skin. The combination of the CBD and Manuka Honey, together with witch hazel and cucumber extract, calms and soothes dry, sensitive skin immediately. It’s a thick cream, so just a pea-sized dollop from the pump will work to moisturize and hydrate the face and neck area. It works in a unique manner because it targets the endocannabinoid system which modulates the regulation of homeostasis across all other body systems.
Because CBD oil has access to the immune system, it can tell the immune system to stop sending so many warrior immune cells to the injury. This doesn’t stop your healing process or slow it down; it can help it heal faster. These endocannabinoids bind to cannabinoid receptors that are all over your cells. Through the CB1 receptors, your system can control the neurological functions of the body. This control is mainly because the CB1 receptors have been found to be more densely populated in the brain. The CB2 receptors are found all over the body and give the endocannabinoids the ability to help mediate the immune system.
This is partly why CBD is legal, but so long as there isn’t enough THC content to make the oil psychoactive. Most CBD oil in the UK comes entirely from hemp and, as such, is completely legal. However, it has to be proven that the CBD oil comes from an industrial hemp strain and not a marijuana plant. Furthermore, there has to be fewer than 0.2% THC present in the oil. The BSCG Certified Drug-Free ® program tests for 485 drugs, including 274 that are on the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List. The additional 211 dugs cover over-the-counter, prescription and illicit medications that aren’t yet specifically banned in sports.
The addition of red mandarin orange makes it a joy to use, whether topically or sublingually. The citrusy tincture also brings terpenes, another non-psychoactive cannabis component, into the party to improve the CBD’s efficiency. Active people and those with joint issues are probably all too familiar with roll-on analgesics. This menthol-forward CBD alternative can pick up where their old sticks left off—and lap them. With 200mg of CBD per container, this extra-strength roll-on should blast away any aches.
Disadvantages Of The Cbd Oil Biotech Muscle Gel
The added THC, while minuscule, is enough to provide some additional benefits to the CBD through a phenomenon called the entourage effect. Cannabidiol is only one of over a hundred different potentially therapeutic compounds in cannabis. Both full-spectrum and broad-spectrum contain a range of cannabinoids and terpenes that work alongside CBD to provide synergistic effects through a phenomenon called the entourage effect.
The products are third-party tested, non-GMO and vegetarian, and have been ISO certified. I tried this out on sore neck muscles after a tough yoga class, and found that I could feel the product working almost immediately, with a slight cooling, tingling sensation . The mild and sweet spearmint scent was energizing, and my muscles felt relaxed and less achy after only a few minutes. It’s no surprise then, that the number of people using CBD to treat longstanding ailments that read like a proud laundry list of accomplishments is growing by the day as awareness rises. CBD creams are generally acknowledged as safe with very few side effects, but there are instances where they may occur.
Should You Use Topical Or Oral Cbd For Soreness?
“It is anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiemetic, antipsychotic, and neuroprotective,” the review study’s authors wrote. Physical therapy is often an important step to making the tendons strong again and preventing future injury. CBD can be used to supplement treatments like this, since it reduces pain and inflammation. People experiencing mild to moderate tendonitis may find that CBD oil provides them all the relief they need.
Andiroba – The oil found within the Andiroba seed which is widely used in Brazillian medicine to treat swelling, arthritis and muscle injuries and pain. It’s all natural – Current pain relief solutions often have unfavorable side effects. So we created an alternative, 100% natural solution to heal without the harm. We created the Radical Relief Gel Roll-On as the easiest, most effective remedy.
The exploitation of any muscles can lead to tendonitis, so the biggest risk factor here is intense physical activity such as professional sports or heavy-duty jobs such as construction works or mining. Tendonitis is more likely to happen when people get older and can also derive from pre-existing health conditions such as diabetes or arthritis. After trying these brands, I’m going to continue using the topicals. For my needs as an active runner, I didn’t feel that the ingestible options directly addressed my leg soreness.
Most topicals are designed to be used for no more than a week at a time, per the Cleveland Clinic. Others use agents like capsaicin, menthol or menthol salicylate to create a warming or cooling sensation that can help distract you from the pain, according to the Mayo Clinic. Cooling agents can also reduce blood flow to a painful area, while warming agents can help dilate blood vessels and encourage more blood flow — two things that can also help promote healing, explains Dr. Mikhael. Keep in mind that homeopathic remedies aren’t subject to the same scientific scrutiny as conventional pain relievers. But this might be worth a try if you’re looking for a more natural option, as long as you get the green light from your doctor first.
Unless you have skin sensitivities or allergies, there are really no adverse effects to worry about. An easy go-to when you’re experiencing muscle pain after a hard workout is a pain-relieving ointment. To answer that question, we have to dig a little deeper into how our brain works with the body to process pain—and also why we might be experiencing pain to begin with. The manufacturer claims that this product provides localized relief to parts of the body that may be experiencing strain. A person will need to apply the product liberally to the area they want to treat.
A brief description of the approaches presented in patents and in the literature, follows, while principal formulation data are reported in Table 2. The use of cannabinoids, in combination with odorous volatile compounds and emu oil has also been proposed as a method to improve the effectiveness of cannabinoid transdermal delivery to areas in the hypodermis . The evaluation stages for the transdermal administration of cannabinoids range from early preclinical phases and mouse models, to self-initiated topical use and randomized, double-blind controlled studies. Several patents have presented systems for vaporisation and nebulisation, from a variety of containers , at a selected temperature to form a precise amount of vapour with THC and CBD . It is also present in some nervous tissues, such as dorsal root ganglia and microglial cells.
Arthritis – In a 2016 study, it was discovered that topical CBD relieved pain and swelling caused by arthritis in rats. However, we need more research to determine what ingredients would make the best CBD cream for arthritis pain. Certificate of Analysis – One way brands help to ensure the Oursons au CBD pour le sommeil safety and quality of their products is by running them through third-party lab tests. These tests provide unbiased results looking into a number of aspects of the CBD, including its cannabinoid and terpene count and whether or not it contains any contaminants, such as heavy metals.
When most people think about Cannabis, they immediately imagine a recreational drug. The World Anti- Doping Agency eliminated CBD from the list of prohibited substances. But, major athletic organizations and sports leagues except for the major league baseball still prohibit the usage of THC. Look for the companies that maintain utmost transparency by clearly stating their hemp source, manufacturing process, extraction methods, third-party lab tests, and detailed Certificate of Analysis. However, some people believe that THC has some benefits for the user. The extracting method is of immense importance as it ensures that the product is not contaminated.
But it was pretty cool to get some relief from a topical instead of something like pain medication. There’s something weird going on with the ingredients, such as it lacking what the topical needs to actually get into my muscles. In contrast to oils, which must be digested inside the body, salves can be applied locally for amazing accuracy. Topical CBD products for pain have been shown to help with a variety of ailments, according to research.
Creams and lotions usually have a thinner consistency — though it ranges — and should rub all the way into your skin without leaving a greasy feeling. And FYI, because it contains chamomile, anyone with an allergy or sensitivity to plants in the Asteraceae family should be careful about using it. Broad-spectrum CBD contains all the same compounds as full-spectrum CBD, but the THC is completely extracted.
This will allow the body an opportunity to become acclimated to CBD. If the initial amount does not yield the desired effects after approximately a week, you may then increase the dosage by 5mg. Dosage amounts should only be increased weekly, depending on the effects experienced. If CBD is determined to be a suitable treatment option, the dosage could become an area of concern for patients. Though traditional healthcare methods often tend to have very finite and definitive amounts to take, CBD users have a more ambiguous dosage structure. Made from industrial-grade hemp, Nature’s Script Hemp Pain Gel surpasses many competitors in terms of efficacy.
CBD oil has proven to be successful in the treatment of many conditions, including chronic pain. When extracted from the hemp plant, the end result is oil-based CBD. But, CBD oil can be infused and made available in many different forms, including tinctures, vape liquids, edible oils, capsules, powders, isolate crystals, and more. CBD oil can even be transformed and added to topical products and even delicious edibles, such as gummy candies and chocolate. BATCH is more than worthy of a top spot on our Best CBD oil for Pain list.
As a result, it’s highly unlikely that there is a single CBD-containing product that works for all people with all types of arthritis. This is one of the most attractive qualities you can find in a painkiller. People who take CBD don’t feel thirty times worse the next day like they would with opioids, and the CBD actually helps heal while desensitizing you to pain. Opiates do help in the healing process by inhibiting pain and elevating endorphins.
But with so many options on the market it can be hard to find a quality CBD topical for pain. Each batch of Go Green Hemp products is tested by an independent lab called Botanacor, which is an ISO17025 compliant lab. Their raw CBD oils are tested for heavy metals, potency, microbes, pesticides, and residual solvents.
Top 20 Best Cbd Pain Relief Products In 2020
This review also stated that CBD could protect against the inflammation that is linked to gastrointestinal damage. Furthermore, it helps relieve anxiety and stress, which can boost mental performance during a physical workout. My therapist spoke in hushed tones as she explained the benefits of the treatment, which she said include muscle pain relief, increased relaxation and reduction in inflammation. CBD cream is a great alternative to replace or complement your existing therapy for sciatic nerve pain. Using a topical cream and mixing it with a morphine topical appears to be one of the most promising pain management routines. And when you consider all the collateral effects of using CBD cream beyond the pain relief, it makes sense to invest a few dollars in this affordable all-natural product.
Chil Wellness Cbd Review
The main disadvantage for liposomes in the encapsulation of lipophilic compounds is their reduced ability to locate such compounds in their phospholipid bilayer. Low encapsulation efficiency, or drug loading (ratio of encapsulated drug/sum of all components), is normally obtained for this reason. Rapid bioavailability and onset in the pulmonary administration of loaded-THC liposomes has been reported by Hung . The formulation was composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, giving liposomes with an average size of 300–500 nm containing 0.3 mg/mL THC. Pharmacokinetic data described slow and prolonged release that continued for more than 5 h after administration. In order to complete this overview of topical CBD, we should note that CBD exerts interesting sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes , .
Cbd Age Limits Requirements: How Long Does Cbd Stay In Your Body?
They are one of the few vertically integrated brands in the industry, and therefore can offer highly effective products for a great price. They even boost their oils with natural anti-inflammatory terpenes for enhanced results. There are three different types of CBD extracts that can be used in an oil-based product. The second type of broad spectrum CBD, which contains other compounds such as cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, fatty acids, and other plant-based material.
Cbd Topical Pain Relief
Unlike THC, the other well-known compound derived from cannabis, CBD doesn’t have psychoactive effects. That means you can use it for medicinal purposes without getting high, so it’s safe to use even when you’re working or driving . CBD creams are recognized as safe and beneficial with few to zero side effects, although they do occur occasionally. Possible Will CBD gummies help me with pain? side effects include fatigue, changes in appetite, changes in weight, and diarrhea. As CBD cream is a topical and doesn’t typically enter the bloodstream, there is a slight possibility it may interact with some medications. Customers stated success when using the topical cream for skin irritations, citing immediate cooling and soothing results.
For those looking for reassurance in the source of their CBD oil, this is certainly one option to try. Made with all organic ingredients, NuLeaf CBD oil uses whole-plant CO2 extraction for its manufacturing process. This helps to ensure a potent strain of CBD oil with a higher rate of absorption when used.
We recommend these products based on an intensive research process that’s designed to cut through the noise and find the top products in this space. Guided by experts, we spend hours looking into the factors that matter, to bring you these selections. Of course, the research we have discussed here is based on using high-quality CBD. It’s important you make sure you use a high-quality CBD product that is free from contaminants and artificial additives.
They may help people with back discomfort lessen pain and inflammation. If you use CBD oil on your calves, it won’t aid your stomach muscles. This can be advantageous or disadvantageous depending on the severity.
It’s a solid choice for post-run muscle soreness, or just accompanying a massage to help expedite recovery. CBD cream may provide localized relief, while CBD oil may have added benefits to full-body pain relief. People believe that CBD oil may also help with mood, sleep, and anxiety. The type of pain determines whether CBD oil or CBD cream works better for you. The effect is almost the same—the only difference is how targeted you want the pain relief to be.
Here are in fact many different types of CBD oils and how they are applied or taken may vary, with other popular forms including balms and teas. Tetrahydrocannabinol), which is the main psychoactive element found within cannabis or marijuana. This often discourages potential consumers who do not wish to experience these psychoactive-induced thoughts and feelings. Whether it be hours hunched over a screen, or pushing too hard at the gym—we all end up with unwanted pain and inflammation. Cbd bud that’s lab tested from the hemp plant available in different flavors strains at the best price with free discrete shipping if your are looking for CBD hemp buds for sale.
Such kinds of diseases include arthritis, spondylitis, spondylosis, frozen shoulder, osteoporosis, glaucoma, and of course sciatica. This brand is noted for its transparency and maintenance of purity of each of their products and this lotion is no exception. The customers have reviewed the product to be one of the best CBD salve currently available in the market. It has also been researched for its effect and therapeutic use in case of a range of mental disorders including anxiety, depression, sleep apnea, insomnia, etc.
Advised dosages that we recommend you check out, where they even take into account an individual’s height and weight and the severity of their pain. Check out this list on the 17 best natural energy drinks brought to you by OriGym. Our article detailing the 15 mental health benefits of running to be an insightful read. Arnica – The known effect of arnica is that it is used to produce a cooling sensation, ideal to treat bruises, aches and muscle spasms.
Muscle Cramps And Spasms
Their award-winning CBD cream has received rave reviews from a-list celebrities at numerous award ceremonies, from the Golden Globes, to the Emmy Awards and even the Oscars. Overall, CBDistillery is our top choice for offering the most creative, functional cannabidiol topicals. There are many ways to treat osteoporosis naturally such as diet and exercise. Diet plays a big role in bone health because it influences the intake of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D that are necessary for healthy bones.
So far, research has shown cannabinoids to be a safe and effective alternative treatment for fibromyalgia symptoms, however the studies do ask for standardization of treatment compounds, and more research. In recent years there have been several studies that look at the effects of cannabinoids on headaches. The best CBD oils for pain, will not actually state that they can be used for pain.
When CBD starts interacting with the ECS, it signals the macrophages to block the release of cytokines. Inflammation is a natural physiological response to injuries or the administration of harmful substances. Collagen is the amplest protein in the human body; it controls elasticity, strength, and structure of the skin and bones.
In other words, the US authorities provide strict guidelines for achieving botanical purity and chemical quality of organically grown cannabis plants. Proper CBD cream for pain has to be derived from a plant grown within these guidelines. Numerous studies have pointed to CBD as potent anti-inflammatory properties. For example, one study has found that CBD can effectively help people manage arthritis pain, which affects the connective tissues like ligaments and tendons . Severe cases of tendonitis are also treated with corticosteroid drugs. These painkillers are used for pain management; doctors apply them to athletes using injections for immediate relief from inflammation and pain.
This is due to the pain-killing properties of CBD and other cannabinoids present in the Full Spectrum Pain Management Balm. As we all know, the anti-inflammatory drugs given to treat pain and swelling come with some adverse side effects. One amazing and organic alternative which can be used to help you with contusions is CBD Pain Balm. A CBD massage treatment typically involves CBD oil that is mixed with another carrier oil or cream before a massage therapist applies it to the skin. I’ve been searching for natural relief for quite some time, so I decided to give a CBD massage a try.
Towards our physical and mental health and are absolutely worth knowing when looking to buy the right CBD supplement for you. For bodybuilding, our bodies go through a lot and working with great supplements to tackle muscle pain and pain relief is more than important, especially post-workout. It has the cold peppermint menthol smell that you expect, CBD Tea but this ointment rubs on warm before cooling off moments later, offering pain relief on sore quads for about half of a day. There are a variety of salves on the market that may reduce inflammation and pain. Some athletes opt for CBD salves because they offer quick relief, often taking effect within 10–15 minutes, and may last for a few hours.
They have a sweet, slightly minty scent to them, without the potent smell of menthol invading your nose. Listed below are the top 20 products you can find for topical pain relief CBD. Whether you seek quick pain relief, or you’re looking to fix dry, inflamed, and cracked skin, the cannabis industry has a solution for you. On the other hand, THC can aid in the treatment of certain nerve-affected skin conditions by affecting cutaneous CB1 receptors. Both products share a mild base infused with 300mg of 100% organic, additive-free, broad-spectrum CBD extract.
One of the most common ways of dealing with sports injuries is by consuming opioids such as Vicodin and Oxycontin. It’s no secret that opioids may offer pain 300mg & 1000mg relief, but not without the prospect of addiction. PolarX CBD Pain Cream buyers were impressed by how well this gel worked at relieving them of their pain.
“The advantage here is that sublingual administration results in therapeutic benefit in all muscles.” Muscle strains and joint pain — it allows users to apply the cannabidiol directly onto the affected areas. Clary sage — an essential oil considered effective in alleviating pain and discomfort during heavy flow periods.
To that end, the brand is on a mission to educate people throughout the world on CBD’s benefits by using its social media platform. The brand offers both full-spectrum and broad-spectrum oil varieties. Joy Organics prides itself on compassion, integrity, and excellence. The brand has a clear initiative to create high-quality CBD products using innovation and a top level of service. Its customer care department mirrors itself after CEO and Co-Founder Joy Smith’s personal experience with CBD products.